In the International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education report, it is argued that the support from school administration and school heads was noted to serve as a motivating tool for the sexuality education teachers UNESCO, This is consistent with the argument expressed by the participants in this study, where school leadership is not supportive. Consequently, teachers are to be innovative, resourceful, original, and encouraged to think creatively of possible approaches to employ to achieve the goals as stated in the International Technical Guidance on sexuality education report UNESCO, The participants focused on how the methodology enabled them to participate, reflect and think about what is holding them back from optimally teaching sexuality education, as well as on their agency to teach the necessary critical content.
One of the participants remarked that:. Esinia, 38 years old. I learnt a lot about challenges to teaching sexuality education, including how to teach in different cultures and religions. Vongai became conscious that she could teach sexuality education to learners from different cultural backgrounds. She went on to say:. I now know that children have different cultural expectations. This seemed to be a new awareness as her statement shows that she had reflected and thought of how she could teach the critical content in sexuality education. Nyasha, 36 years old teacher.
The remarks by Nyasha showed how she had become sensitive towards the fact that learners had different cultural backgrounds, which she had to get to know about and then take cognizance of when she taught them. At this point, she was conscious that inadequate knowledge of the cultural backgrounds of her learners was holding her back from optimally teaching sexuality education but also of her agency to teach the necessary critical content in HIV and AIDS education with more awareness of the cultural diversity in her class.
We must be very careful when we teach pupils in boarding schools who come all over. Rose, year old teacher. This is important in the context of Zimbabwe boarding schools enrolling learners from all corners of the SADC region. This study seemed to enable the participants to critically look at how they could teach in a culturally sensitive way. Rutgers asserts that for any impactful implementation of comprehensive sexuality education, it is important to engage with and involve the wider community to reduce contradictions which might arise from a diversity of cultural practices. The learners they teach live in communities and acquire the expected attitudes, values and norms, which should be mediated in class.
It is the realisation by teachers of the diversity in terms of culture and tradition in class, which influences the level at which learners will engage with the learning material. Therefore, participants in this study recognised that for them to be enabled to teach the critical content in sexuality education within the HIV and AIDS education curriculum, understanding the cultural setting in which they teach is important.
Participants have, however, come up with their own plans to get around the challenge. The skill of creating solutions to the challenges at hand, demonstrates agency and resonates well with the critical paradigm, which guides this study. There are so many restrictions when teaching, like language barrier. The first one is language as taboo, therefore, I must be careful on what to say. Esther, year old teacher. Then on taboos, we also say people must be very sensitive with what they say. The participants reflected and thought deeply about talking about sexuality in the class and had discussed the limitations of some Shona vernacular language.
The names for male and female reproductive organs are taboo, as explained earlier on, however one of the participants expressed:. I shall create or coin my own new words in Shona like nhengo, to avoid being called an immoral teacher. Although Edith had shown reflexivity, awareness of the need for respectable language , and agency, perhaps coining of new words of her own which might not be fully recognised by learners is not a solution, rather, if she was to learn all the respected terms for sexuality within the context of Zimbabwe, then it would be helpful.
Some pupils feel like expressing themselves in vernacular whilst the teacher feels comfortable to explain in English. Nyasha, year old teacher. She was aware of the dilemma of how to speak about sexuality and thought that she could apply her mind in resolving the issue. The Shona culture is not an exception in respecting not calling out names of reproductive organs in public. The participants in this study seemed to have come to that realisation through their participation in this study. The participants demonstrated an awareness of the importance of teaching sexuality education.
One participant stated that:. Regardless of age, religion and culture, the aim is to focus on imparting knowledge. After some further reflection, Edith, demonstrates eagerness and motivation to go forward and teach sexuality. Likewise, another participant also added:. What has changed in me, about my future teaching is to continue teaching pupils despite different challenges coming by cultural differences.
An important learning for the participants was that they could not force learners to comply with what they taught. The teachers could only enable the learners to make informed decisions. She went on to say, I shall teach, and they shall make choices in life. Now, I know, I used to be biased, saying, do as I say, but now I shall teach, so that they can make their own choice.
It is difficult not to show your own biases when teaching sexuality education, and it was important for the participants to come to the realisation that they should teach the curriculum in an unbiased way, however difficult it might be, and not preach what they believed in, and assume that they are the only ones who know it all.
The participants in this study did show evidence of an awareness of how personal biases might affect their teaching. The teachers experienced a new research method, drawing, and seemed to be enthusiastic about applying it as a participatory pedagogy in their own classes — enabling the learners to participate in talking about crucial and sensitive issues.
One participant had this to say:. I see a bright future in the teaching of sexuality education as my children shall use drawing. In my future teaching, I would ask the pupils to be open by using drawings to explain themselves. There are so many methods to use, I have learnt one new way, which is drawing. In perceiving the possibility of using a new participatory method, another participant also remarked that:. I have learnt that use of drawing is very effective in explaining crucial issues.
Using drawing seemed to open up the possibility of participants using other methods too in a participatory way, such as collage, paving the way for a learner-centred approach. Another participant responded as follows:. Even those pamphlets can be used to impart knowledge as children cut pictures and discuss. Leaflets, fliers and posters are there, we go and collect them and use them in class. If you go to family planning, you get these charts, you can ask your children to cut the pictures, they will like it.
There are posters which children can cut and discuss, issues like stigma and discrimination. While a learner centred approach and using participatory visual methods are suggested, the teachers also realised that the reality of a heavy workload and teaching large classes may hamper participation, as one participant expressed:. I have 36 lessons and 52 children in one class, yes, I may like to use them in groups, but it is not possible, my classes are too big, the classroom is full, no space.
It depends with the load; you can always use these participatory methods. Participatory methods involve learners learning individually or in groups doing different types of activities. In this study participants referred to smaller classes as more conducive to using participatory methods. This is consistent with the argument put across by Liew , who asserts that pupil discomfort in sexuality education lessons is high, often manifesting itself in reluctance to participate constructively because of class sizes and composition for instance in terms of sex, ability, maturity and age.
Choice of materials to use during participatory class activities also determines the level of participation Liew, , in this instance, engaging with a sensitive topic. Drawing is therefore seen as a powerful tool to use in teaching since it can generate discussion around an issue of interest amongst participants Stuart, When teachers employ this method in their lessons, learners become active participants Theron, and with such type of learning, valid co-production of knowledge occurs.
A central aspect of participatory visual research is that the participants not only co-produced knowledge, but they learnt from each other. One of the participants had the following experience to share:. I learnt a lot about challenges to teaching sexuality education, and some solutions.
My view of teaching the subject has improved having gained information from other teachers. We looked at how to overcome the challenge that teachers are meeting, now we are overcomers. There is evidence of thoughtful analysis and reflection by the participants, which according to Willis is typical of the critical paradigm. They also have to draw on the curriculum which contains philosophical underpinnings, grade specific content, and the suggested methodology.
The activity happens within a community in which members achieve their object ive through the division of labour. History and culture are important, in that every participant in an Activity System has her own history or lived experiences as a result of her specific cultural background. They mediated their knowledge first among themselves learning from each other - also reflecting on their own identity and its interface with teaching sexuality education - during engagement with a participatory visual method and were then seemingly enabled to mediate the sexuality education knowledge to the learners, who again could mediate it to the communities in order to prevent the spread of HIV infections.
These, however, require interaction with a third Activity System - the custodian of culture - the wider community. As such, we argue that the wider community is a significant and influential third Activity System, which is often mentioned, but not engaged with in terms of culture. The wider community is where teachers and the learners live and comprises of a multiplicity of interrelated Activity Systems that are interlinked and affect and influence the teaching of sexuality education in the school to learners from diverse cultures.
This is where all the culture, the history that CHAT refers to, is embedded. The three Activity Systems i. It seemed that they viewed the synchronisation or collaboration of the community, the school and themselves as key in enabling them to transform their realities and enable their agency to teach the critical sexuality education content in their secondary schools in Zimbabwe. The study has several implications for policy in terms of the Guidance and Counseling curriculum, in that the curriculum should enable and encourage a criticality which could open up dialogue about sexuality education and cultural issues in the context of HIV and AIDS.
The study also implies collaboration among all stakeholders to ensure the best possible sexuality education for learners in the context of HIV and AIDS. Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth. The Nelson Mandela University faculty staff, for those words of wisdom you always shared. The help offered by the technical support group, we thank you. Our participants, we thank you for the precious time sacrificed to generate data with us. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Apr Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Drawing Drawing is a method in which participants actively represent their ideas by making drawings, thus enabling them to describe, reflect and evoke emotions as well as pay attention to things in novel ways Guillemin, Focus group discussion Focus group discussion is a method in which people are able to express their feelings and their thinking about an issue in a relaxed atmosphere Greeff, The research process We asked participants, in the first session, to use pen and paper to draw what they experienced as challenges to teaching the necessary critical content in sexuality education within the HIV and AIDS education curriculum in Zimbabwe secondary schools.
Data analysis A first layer of participatory analysis was done by the participants themselves, through writing captions and explaining what their drawings meant. Findings In this paper, we draw on the analysis of drawings and on the focus group discussion to present the findings in response to the research question.
Creating a community context for talking about sexuality This theme consists of two categories which are: drawing on community structures to break the taboo of speaking about healthy sexuality; and engaging with culture in relation to healthy sexuality. Drawing on community structures to break the taboo of speaking about healthy sexuality The participants indicated that they needed the support of other community members like the police, community health workers and school development associations to assist them to overcome the challenges they experienced so that they could teach the necessary critical content in sexuality education in the HIV and AIDS education curriculum.
Participants made several presentations: Apart from the police, health workers and school development association can also assist us by having the same road show campaigns as a solution to the challenge on taboos. Vongai, year old teacher It appeared that participants were of the opinion that campaigns could assist in changing cultural beliefs which oppose open discussion on sexuality education. Engaging with culture in relation to healthy sexuality As a way of enabling the community to critically engage with culture in relation to healthy sexuality one participant said: Then on culture, we also said people should be exposed to relevant information, so that they can make their own choice, because we talked about the Kalanga culture, and we are saying, if they know, if they have got knowledge of what is right, even if it is in their culture, they will have to make their own choice, to choose between their culture and the correct thing.
Vongai, year old teacher When Vongai referred to an aspect of the Kalanga culture, where a bride is given to the father-in-law for sex prior to her bridegroom , participants indicated that the communities are to engage with culture in relation to healthy sexuality in the context of HIV and AIDS, in order to get a clearer understanding of the implications of some cultural practices.
The same participant continued: In our meetings with parents, we can ask some parents to address us on their views about sexuality education. Vongai, year old teacher Teachers are expected to interact with the parents and the local community in as far as the teaching of sexuality education is concerned UNESCO, Vongai, year old teacher Furthermore, another participant stated: We are saying, the Ministry should train us or hire professionally trained teachers.
Edith, year old teacher In her presentation, another participant furthermore reiterated the need for teachers to be trained. One participant explained: When we look at the Zimbabwean curriculum, the teaching of sexuality education, there are certain gaps which are there within the Zimbabwean curriculum and these gaps for example, the aspect that, certain aspects of sexuality is not really emphasized though there is a syllabus. Esinia, year old teacher Of the eight participants, none was involved in the initial training of Leadership support The participants lamented about the lack of adequate support from school heads.
Shuvai, 51 -year old teacher Furthermore, another participant also remarked: Heads of schools have a challenge, they should change their attitude, to make it positive. Shuvai, year old teacher Along the same line of argument, another participant went on to say: Heads must provide teachers with more teaching materials for use in their lessons. Sensitised towards cultural diversity The participants focused on how the methodology enabled them to participate, reflect and think about what is holding them back from optimally teaching sexuality education, as well as on their agency to teach the necessary critical content.
Esinia, 38 years old In addition, another participant had the following experience to share: I learnt a lot about challenges to teaching sexuality education, including how to teach in different cultures and religions. Vongai, year old teacher Vongai became conscious that she could teach sexuality education to learners from different cultural backgrounds. She went on to say: I now know that children have different cultural expectations. Vongai, year old teacher This seemed to be a new awareness as her statement shows that she had reflected and thought of how she could teach the critical content in sexuality education.
Nyasha, 36 years old teacher The remarks by Nyasha showed how she had become sensitive towards the fact that learners had different cultural backgrounds, which she had to get to know about and then take cognizance of when she taught them. Another gave a warning to herself and others when she stated: We must be very careful when we teach pupils in boarding schools who come all over.
Rose, year old teacher This is important in the context of Zimbabwe boarding schools enrolling learners from all corners of the SADC region. One participant explained: There are so many restrictions when teaching, like language barrier. Rose, year old teacher The statement was reaffirmed: The first one is language as taboo, therefore, I must be careful on what to say.
Esther, year old teacher Furthermore, another participant remarked: Then on taboos, we also say people must be very sensitive with what they say. Shuvai, year old teacher The participants reflected and thought deeply about talking about sexuality in the class and had discussed the limitations of some Shona vernacular language.
The names for male and female reproductive organs are taboo, as explained earlier on, however one of the participants expressed: I shall create or coin my own new words in Shona like nhengo, to avoid being called an immoral teacher. Edith, year old teacher Although Edith had shown reflexivity, awareness of the need for respectable language , and agency, perhaps coining of new words of her own which might not be fully recognised by learners is not a solution, rather, if she was to learn all the respected terms for sexuality within the context of Zimbabwe, then it would be helpful.
The participant went on to argue that: Some pupils feel like expressing themselves in vernacular whilst the teacher feels comfortable to explain in English. Nyasha, year old teacher She was aware of the dilemma of how to speak about sexuality and thought that she could apply her mind in resolving the issue. To teach and not to preach The participants demonstrated an awareness of the importance of teaching sexuality education.
Esinia, year old teacher Furthermore, another participant exclaimed: I now have the passion to go and help pupils who are in dire need of sexuality HIV and AIDS knowledge. Edith, year old teacher After some further reflection, Edith, demonstrates eagerness and motivation to go forward and teach sexuality. Likewise, another participant also added: What has changed in me, about my future teaching is to continue teaching pupils despite different challenges coming by cultural differences. Rose, year old teacher An important learning for the participants was that they could not force learners to comply with what they taught.
Sarah, year old teacher In agreement, another participant also expressed herself: Now, I know, I used to be biased, saying, do as I say, but now I shall teach, so that they can make their own choice. Nyasha, 36 years old teacher It is difficult not to show your own biases when teaching sexuality education, and it was important for the participants to come to the realisation that they should teach the curriculum in an unbiased way, however difficult it might be, and not preach what they believed in, and assume that they are the only ones who know it all.
Seeing possibilities for a new participatory method of teaching The teachers experienced a new research method, drawing, and seemed to be enthusiastic about applying it as a participatory pedagogy in their own classes — enabling the learners to participate in talking about crucial and sensitive issues. One participant had this to say: I see a bright future in the teaching of sexuality education as my children shall use drawing.
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Esinia, year old teacher Furthermore, another participant also echoed: In my future teaching, I would ask the pupils to be open by using drawings to explain themselves. Vongai, year old teacher One participant in addition, acknowledged that: There are so many methods to use, I have learnt one new way, which is drawing. Nyasha, 36 years old teacher In perceiving the possibility of using a new participatory method, another participant also remarked that: I have learnt that use of drawing is very effective in explaining crucial issues.
Esther, year old teacher Using drawing seemed to open up the possibility of participants using other methods too in a participatory way, such as collage, paving the way for a learner-centred approach. Another participant responded as follows: Even those pamphlets can be used to impart knowledge as children cut pictures and discuss. Sarah, year old teacher In concurrence, another participant articulated: Leaflets, fliers and posters are there, we go and collect them and use them in class. Rose, year old teacher While a learner centred approach and using participatory visual methods are suggested, the teachers also realised that the reality of a heavy workload and teaching large classes may hamper participation, as one participant expressed: I have 36 lessons and 52 children in one class, yes, I may like to use them in groups, but it is not possible, my classes are too big, the classroom is full, no space.
Sarah, year old teacher In addition, another participant also argued: It depends with the load; you can always use these participatory methods. Edith, year old teacher Participatory methods involve learners learning individually or in groups doing different types of activities. One of the participants had the following experience to share: I learnt a lot about challenges to teaching sexuality education, and some solutions.
Edith, year old teacher Additionally, another participant also uttered: My view of teaching the subject has improved having gained information from other teachers. Vongai, year old teacher Similar sentiments were also echoed by yet another participant who exclaimed: We looked at how to overcome the challenge that teachers are meeting, now we are overcomers.
Figure 1. The three Activity Systems to function as one activity system. Acknowledgements The Nelson Mandela University faculty staff, for those words of wisdom you always shared. Retrieved from: www. Bern: Peter Lang. Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents patterns, prevention and potential. The Lancet , , — A rights-based approach to sexuality education: Conceptualization, clarification and challenges.
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health , 46 2 , 63— International Journal of Inclusive Education , 11 4 , — Journal of Education , 38 1 , 5— Teaching sexuality education in primary schools in Tanzania. Journal of Education and Practice , 5 27 , 21— Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3 , 77— Fundamentals of research methodology for Healthcare Professionals 3rd ed.
Cape Town: Juta. Evaluation and Program Planning , 25 4 , — Life skills based HIV education: Some virtues and errors. Sex Education: Sexuality, Society and Learning , 15 6 , — Research methods in education 7th ed. London: Routledge. Teacher training on sexuality education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Case studies in five countries. Educational research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research 4th ed.
Essex: Pearson Education. In Wood L. Expansive learning at work: Towards an Activity Theoretical re-conceptualisation. Journal of Education and Work , 1 , — Development, movement and Agency: Breaking away into Mycorrhizae activities. In Yamazumi K. From teams to knots: Activity Theoretical Studies of collaboration and learning at work.
Cambridge: University Press. National teacher preparation standards for sexuality education. Sexuality Information and Educator Council of U. Retrieved from www. Critical Arts , 24 , — Sexuality education in South Africa: Wedged within a triad of contradictory values. Journal of Psychology in Africa , 21 2 , — Communitas , 17 2 , 45— In Sundaram V.
London: Palgrave Macmillan, UK. School-based HIV prevention programmes for African youth. Social Science and Medicine , 58 7 , — Information collection: Interviewing. In De Vos A. Pretoria: Van Schaik. Understanding illness: Using drawings as a research method. Qualitative Health Research , 14 2 , — Sexuality education: Emerging trends in evidence and practice. Journal of Adolescent Health , 56 1 , S15—S Perspectives of South African life orientation teachers. Wayne Ross the social studies curriculum—the study of human enterprise across space and time—however, has always been at the core of educational en- deavors.
Earlier commissions of the NEA and American Historical Association whose respective aims were the reform of secondary education and inclusion of history as a core school subject heavily influenced the Committee on Social Studies. The roots of the contemporary social studies curriculum, therefore, can be traced to at least two distinct curriculum reform efforts: the introduction of academic history into the curriculum and citizenship education.
Separate and competing curriculum standards have recently been published for no less that seven areas of the social studies curriculum: United States and global history, economics, geography, civics, psychology, and social studies. As with the curriculum field in general, social studies curriculum is defined by a lack of consensus and contentiousness over it goals and methods.
The Language of Teaching and Curriculum The language used to describe, explain, and justify what we do as teach- ers constitutes, in part, our work and our social relations with students, teacher colleagues, and other stakeholders in education. For example, some common metaphors used to describe the work of teachers include gardener, facilitator, guide, pilot, navigator, mapmaker, gatekeeper, change agent, and activist.
Each of these metaphors communicates certain assumptions about the teach- ing-learning process and the interaction between teachers and curricu- lum. What are our images of teachers in relation to curriculum? How do these images shape the work of curriculum development and teaching?
This organizational distinction at the uni- versity level spawned degree programs, which produced specialists to work in schools, further entrenching the separation of curriculum and teaching. The distinction between curriculum and instruction then is fundamentally a distinction between ends and means. For researchers, this distinction provides a way to place boundaries on their inquiry into the complex worlds of teaching and schooling.
In schools, this distinction fits into a bureaucratic structure that seeks to cate- gorize areas of concern with an emphasis on efficiency in decision making. This distinction has produced abstract categories of research and dis- course that bear little resemblance to the lived experience of teachers in the classroom, where ends and means are so thoroughly intertwined.
This does not mean, however, that the language and categories of research are irrelevant to teachers. For ex- ample, when curriculum and instruction ends and means are conceived as independent entities, curriculum development activities become the work of one group and curriculum implementation becomes the work of another.
Wayne Ross and the other is responsible for accomplishment of the goals see Ross, The implication is that we must closely examine the language of ed- ucational practice because it influences our activities and social relations within education. The strict distinction between ends and means in cur- riculum work is problematic in a number of ways. First, the ends-means distinction does not accurately reflect how the enacted curriculum is cre- ated.
Third, it marginalizes teachers in formal curriculum decision making. The ends-means split between curriculum and teaching narrows the professional role of teachers to the point where they have little or no function in formal curriculum development—this has never been more true than in the current era of standards-based curriculum and high- stake tests. Many teachers have internalized the ends-means distinction between curriculum and their work; as a result, they view their profes- sional role as instructional decision makers, not curriculum developers Thornton, , Teacher beliefs about social studies subject matter and student thinking in social studies as well as planning and in- structional strategies, together create the enacted curriculum of a class- room—the day-to-day interactions among students, teachers, and subject matter.
The difference between the publicly declared formal curriculum as presented by curriculum standards documents and the actual cur- riculum experienced by students in social studies classrooms is signifi- cant.
Another teacher may offer no assertions about the value of democracy, while exhibiting its virtues in his or her own behavior. The orientation of this book is toward the teacher as the key factor in curriculum development and change. Introduction 5 Rethinking Teaching and Curriculum If we conceive of social studies teaching and learning as activities that re- quire us to pose and analyze problems in the process of understanding and transforming our world, the limitations of an ends-means approach to curriculum is clear. Social studies teaching should not be reduced to an exercise in implementing a set of activities predefined by policy makers, textbook authors, or a high-stakes test.
Rather teachers should be actively engaged in considering the perennial curriculum question—what knowl- edge is of most worth? This is a Deweyan conception—curriculum as experience—in which teachers and students are at the center of the curriculum. The teaching profession requires teachers who have learned to apply critical thought to their work.
To do this, teachers must have a full knowledge of their subject matter as well as observe and reflect on their practice. Wayne Ross between formal educational theory and teacher behaviors where ends and means are separated. Teachers could no more teach without reflecting upon and hence theorizing about what they are doing than theorists could produce theories without engaging in the sort of practices distinctive of their ac- tivity. Theories are not bodies of knowledge that can be generated out of a practical vacuum and teaching is not some kind of robot-like me- chanical performance that is devoid of any theoretical reflection.
Both are practical undertakings whose guiding theory consists of the reflec- tive consciousness of their respective practitioners. The central aim of curriculum develop- ment is to improve the practical effectiveness of the theories that teachers employ in creating the enacted curriculum. This aim presents problems in that sometimes teachers may not be conscious of the reasons for their actions or may simply be implementing curriculum conceived by others.
This means that reflective practice must focus on both the ex- plicit and the tacit cultural environment of teaching—the language, manners, standards, beliefs, and values that unconsciously influence the classroom and school environment and the ways in which teachers re- spond to it. As Dewey asserted in Democracy and Education, We rarely recognize the extent in which our conscious estimates of what is worthwhile and what is not are due to standards of which we are not conscious at all.
But in general it may be said that the things which we take for granted without inquiry or reflection are just the things which determine our conscious thinking and decide our conclusions. And these habitudes which lie below the level of reflection are just those which have been formed in the constant give and take of relationship with others. Dewey, , p.
In this mode, teaching and curriculum making be- come problematic situations. Critical examination of the intersection of language, social relations, and practice can provide insights into our work as teachers and uncover constraints that affect our approaches to and goals for social studies education. As the chapters in this book illus- trate, the teacher and curriculum are inextricably linked. The Plan of the Book The purpose of this book is to present a substantive overview of the issues in curriculum development and implementation faced by social studies educators.
This third edition of The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities is thoroughly updated and expanded from the revised edition published in The focus is on presenting contempo- rary perspectives on some of the most enduring problems facing social studies educators, with a strong emphasis on concerns for diversity of purposes and forms of knowledge within the social studies curriculum.
This collection of essays provides a systematic investigation of a broad range of issues affecting the curriculum, including new chapters on is- sues of race, multiculturalism, and teaching democracy as well as a chap- ters on topics not addressed in the earlier editions, such as visual culture, digital technologies, making the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered ex- perience visible in the curriculum, and the future of social studies.
In ad- dition there is a new chapter that focuses specifically on social studies for young children. As with the earlier editions, the book is organized into the thematic sections representing contemporary arenas of concern and debate among social studies teachers, curriculum workers, and scholars. This section provides background on disciplinary struggles to control the social studies as well as ways in which state departments of education, textbook publishers, and other actors have influenced the curriculum.
In chapter 1, I pre- sent a broad overview of the struggles for the social studies curriculum, describing a series of tensions and contradictions that have functioned to define the debates over the social studies curriculum since its inception. In chapter 2, Michael Whelan explores the fundamental questions the field has grappled with since its origins—whether social studies is a uni- fied field of study or a cluster of separate disciplines.
Wayne Ross approach to history. He suggests a series of guidelines for social studies teachers to consider in implementing a history-centered curriculum true to social studies citizenship objectives. In chapter 3, through a series of case studies of curriculum frameworks, Kevin D. Vinson examines the op- pressive and anti-oppressive possibilities of citizenship education and as a result clearly delineates both the problems and possibilities of this, per- haps the most principal part of the social studies curriculum.
In chapter 4, Perry Marker argues that despite myriad social, cultural, and techno- logical changes, the contemporary social studies curriculum is mired in earlyth-century history-centered thinking, and out of touch with the needs and interests of the current generation of students who will be the leaders of tomorrow.
In this chapter, he explores how the social studies curriculum needs to break from the forms and structures of the past and consider what it means to educate citizens for the future. Part II—Social Issues and the Social Studies Curriculum, examines social issues in the social studies curriculum with an emphasis on issues of di- versity and inclusion. Although it is not possible to present a comprehen- sive overview of all the important diversity issues related to social studies content areas, this section does address several of the most frequently raised concerns e.
This section begins with three chapters that explore social studies as the site for remaking social relations both within and outside of schools. Wayne Ross, and Kevin D. Vinson critically examines the standards-based educational reform SBER movement and its use of high-stakes tests as the principle means of reforming schools. The authors provide an overview of the curriculum standards in social studies, argue that high-stakes testing fails to meet the expectations of standards-based reformers, and detail the deleterious effects of SBER and the grassroots resistance to curriculum standardization and high-stakes tests.
These authors argue that social studies education is culpable, in part, for the latter condition. However, they also see the so- cial studies curriculum most suited to examine racism and to provide knowledge and critical analysis as a basis for anti-racist action. We do this with some deliberation, as we contem- plate what is important to include, how it will be taught, and how it will be assessed. Rains offer examples from the lived post-social studies experiences of some adult American Indian college students. The purpose of drawing on these examples is to shed light on the color of social studies, drawing on a critical race theory lens.
These examples offer a springboard for crit- ically reflecting on the ways in which the whiteness of social studies works to subordinate the Other, and perpetuate the status quo, while appearing politically correct. This chapter draws on the work of educational radicals and progressives within the field of social studies education for its philosophical, pedagogical, empirical, and theoretical framework. Specifically, CMSS asks us to foster an under- standing of how we can assist students in understanding the notion of domination as it exists in the world today.
CMSS asks us to redefine our relationships with our students—or, actually, to create re- lationships with our students; positive, trustful and intellectual ones. Using the commonplaces also reinforces the notion that gender and social education intersect in a variety of ways. Focusing on glob- alization should not be read as implying that all issues of gender have been resolved in the United States but simply places the United States within the context of a rapidly changing world, one in which national boundaries are not what they used to be.
The third section of The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems and Possibilities examines the social studies curriculum in practice. As in the other sections of the book, a plethora of perspectives are offered, however, there are many important issues and initiatives that are not directly addressed because of space limitations. In an effort to expand the coverage of topics from previous editions, there are six new chapters in Part III.
Curriculum themes addressed in this sec- tion represent those that are particularly significant for social studies early in the twenty-first century. Chapter 10 addresses a central issue that affects social studies cur- riculum and instruction: student assessment. Sandra Mathison and Kristi Fragnoli distinguish assessment practices from tests and measurement and analyze both the technical and social aspects of assessment. Mathison and Fragnoli provide examples of both the limitations and possibilities of in- novative performance assessment practices in social studies and the dilemmas inherent in assessment reform in social studies.
Social studies classrooms and texts are typically filled with pictures, mostly of people. One reason is that mun- dane pictures seem so self-evident. Another reason is that sight is deeply privileged in the Western tradition. Trofanenko explores the current move toward an expanded digital public education project, as primary source materials are made available on institutional Web sites in an effort to promote learning about the past.
The decision to use online digital sources is by no means simply an issue of access. The usefulness of digital sources within social education warrants serious examination of what the digital medium may mean for learning and teaching social studies. Tro- fanenko suggests that social educators question the historically affirmed educational role of cultural heritage institutions, to take advantage of the large-scale digitization projects occurring within the discipline, and to work in developing and advancing with students a critical view of the dig- ital technologies as a space for learning.
In chapter 13, Kevin Jennings addresses the state of affairs with re- gard to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT issues in the so- cial students curriculum today as well as how to integrate these topics into the curriculum. Jennings illustrates that today innovative educators have a plethora of resources to call upon to redress this pattern. By using these new materials, educators cannot only right the wrongs of the historical record but approach timeworn topics such as industrialization, urban- ization, the McCarthy Era, and others in fresh and exciting ways. Wayne Ross cultivating a sense of obligation to others is a natural and appropriate task for social studies education.
Merryfield and Benaya Subedi challenge the colonialist assumptions that pervade the social studies curriculum. They dis- cuss both the importance of this goal for social studies teachers and ways to pursue it. The strategies employed by programs they studied include showing students that society needs improving by examining social prob- lems and controversial issues, developing civic skills through workshops and simulations, creating communities of support through positive real- world experiences, and connecting students to compelling role models.
In this chapter, the authors also provide details of obstacles that social studies teachers are likely to face, including political controversies that aim to derail democratic education efforts and prominent education policies that distract educators from these goals. Part IV weaves together the various threads of the social studies cur- riculum, as laid out in this volume, into a coherent pattern.
As with the world itself, it is impossible to provide one true representation of what the social studies curriculum is. However, in chapter 17 I argue that con- ceptions of the purposes, problems, and possibilities of the social studies curriculum as depicted in this book provide an effective starting place for educators who believe social studies should help children and young adults learn to understand and transform their world. Introduction 13 It is my hope that these essays will stimulate readers to reconsider their assumptions and understanding about the origins, purposes, and nature of the social studies curriculum.
As is evident in the chapters, cur- riculum is much more than information to be passed on to students— a collection of facts and generalizations from history and the social sci- ence disciplines. The curriculum is what students experience. It is dy- namic and inclusive of the interactions among students, teachers, subject matter, and the context. Teach- ers are the key component in any curriculum improvement and it is my hope that this book provides social studies teachers with perspectives, in- sights, and knowledge that are beneficial in their continued growth as professional educators.
Social Studies for Secondary Schools: Teaching to Learn, Learning to Teach
Note 1. References Carr, W. Becoming critical. Education, knowledge, and action research. London: Falmer. Clandinin, D.
Teacher as curriculum maker. Jackson Ed. New York: Macmillan. Connelly, F. Teachers as curriculum planners: Narra- tives of experience. New York: Teachers College Press. Dewey, J. Democracy and education. New York: Free Press. How we think. Lexington, MA: Heath. The relation of theory to practice in education.
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Archam- bault Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Original work published Evans, R. The social studies wars: What should we teach the children? Gehrke, N. In search of the school cur- riculum. Review of Research in Educaton, 18, 51— Hursh, D. Democratic social education: Social studies for social change.
New York: RoutledgeFalmer. Kemmis, S. The action research planner 3rd ed. Gee- long,Victoria: Deakin University Press. Marker, G. Social studies. Wayne Ross Popham, W. Establishing instructional goals. International Journal of Social Education, 7 2 , 83— Teachers as curriculum theorizers. Ross Ed. Redrawing the lines: The case against traditional social stud- ies instruction. Ross Eds. New York: Falmer. Teacher personal the- orizing: Connecting curriculum practice, theory and research. Teacher personal theoriz- ing and research on teaching.
Ross, J. McCutcheon Eds. Social studies: Wrong, right, or left? The Social Studies, 96 4—5. Sanders, D. The development of practical theories of teaching. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 2 1 , 50— Thornton, S. Teacher as curricular gatekeeper in social studies. Shaver Ed. Teaching social studies that matter. New York: Teachers Col- lege Press. Tyler, R. Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Wayne Ross The content of the social studies curriculum is the most inclusive of all school subjects.
Given this, it is not surprising that social studies has been racked by intellectual battles over its purpose, content, and pedagogy since its inception as a school subject in the early part of the twentieth century: To top it off, even the historical accounts of the origins of the social stud- ies as a school subject are in dispute.
Three questions form the framework for this chapter: 1 What is the social studies curriculum? These may seem to be simple and straightforward questions, but as we shall see there is debate and controversy surrounding each. As each of the above questions is addressed, fundamental tensions and contradictions that underlie the social studies curriculum will be identi- fied.
My intention is to present this series of tensions and contradictions as a heuristic for understanding the dynamic nature of the social studies. Wayne Ross the struggle over these contradictions that have shaped the nature of the social studies curriculum in the past and continue to fashion it today. The first section of this chapter examines the origins and purposes of the social studies curriculum. The historical analysis presented in this sec- tion does not attempt to be exhaustive, but rather is intended as a context for understanding the contemporary social studies curriculum and cur- rent efforts to reform it.
Both the contradictory origins of social studies in schools and the long-standing dispute over the relative emphasis of cul- tural transmission and critical thinking will be examined. The following section examines the question of curricular control with particular em- phasis on the historical tensions between curriculum centralization and grassroots curriculum development in the social studies.
The impact of standards-based, test-driven education reform on social studies curricu- lum is addressed in the next section. Social studies curriculum and in- struction cannot be considered in isolation. The teacher is the most critical element in the improvement and transformation of the social studies curriculum. In the final section of this chapter, the role of the so- cial studies teacher in relation to the curriculum is examined. In this sec- tion, the role of teachers as curriculum conduits is contrasted with a more professional activist view of teachers as curriculum theorizers.
What is the Social Studies Curriculum? Origins of Social Studies in School: Academic History, Social Improvement, Struggle for Justice Social studies in the broadest sense, that is, the preparation of young people so that they possess the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for active participation in society, has been a primary part of schooling in North America since colonial times. The earliest laws establishing schools in the United States specified religious and moral instruction. In the Latin grammar schools of New England, instruction in catechism and Bible was the core of schooling, while geography and moral philosophy were also taught.
Nationalistic education intended to develop loyal pa- triots replaced religion as the main purpose of social education following the American Revolution. As mentioned above, the origins of the contemporary social studies curricu- lum has recently become a flash point between advocates of a history-cen- tered social studies curriculum and those calling for a curriculum based on the interdisciplinary study of current social studies see Evans, Whelan suggests that both sides e.
Nonetheless, the contemporary social studies curriculum does have at least two sources: academic history and social im- provement. The tensions and contradictions inherent in the establish- ment of social studies in schools, while perhaps not as extreme as represented by some scholars, may still, however, help to explain the in- ternal conflict that has shaped the field since its beginnings.
Disagree- ment over curricular issues in social studies has characterized the field since its birth and these disagreements and diversities of opinion regard- ing the nature, purpose, and organization of social studies have served to energize the field. Social educators have another history, one not directly connected to the emergence of social science disciplines and not launched by a series of committees. Rather than highlighting a vested interest in the emer- gence of a professional group, there are voices in our history, which re- flect the struggle for social justice in and through education, often focusing on citizens in the midst of social struggle.
Wayne Ross Noffke argues that debates over social studies have failed to acknowledge the widening gap between haves and have-nots and the racialized and gendered patterns of privilege and oppression, which to a large degree form the basis of U. Counts , sets out the social studies project as creating a new social order, one based on democracy and economic justice.
The construction of social studies curricu- lum cannot be accomplished by a focusing on a universal, individual child. Woodson, and W. DuBois, and in communities engaged in struggle for democracy and economic justice e. As Marker and Mehlinger note in their review of research on the social studies curriculum: [T]he apparent consensus on behalf of citizenship education is almost meaningless. Behind that totem to which nearly all social studies re- searchers pay homage lies continuous and rancorous debate about the purposes of social studies.
The most influential of these was worked out by Barr, Barth, and Shermis , who grouped the various positions on the social studies curriculum into three themes: citizenship or cultural transmission, social science, and re- flective inquiry. Morrissett and Haas used the categories of conser- vative cultural continuity, the intellectual aspects of history and the social sciences, and process of thinking reflectively. They argue that the key element in the dispute over the purpose of social studies in the school curriculum in- volves the relative emphasis given to cultural transmission or to critical or reflective thinking.
When cultural transmission is emphasized, the intent is to use the social studies curriculum to promote social adaptation. The emphasis is on teaching content, behaviors, and values that reflect views accepted by the traditional, dominant society. This approach is politically conservative, valuing stability and common standards of thought and be- havior.
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When critical or reflective thinking is emphasized the intent is to use the social studies curriculum to promote social transformation. The emphasis is on teaching content, behaviors, and values that question and critique standard views accepted by the dominant society. Wayne Ross action to lead to the reconstruction of society e. It is within the context of the tensions between the relative emphasis on transmission of the cultural heritage of the dominant society or the development of critical thought that the social studies curriculum has had a mixed history—predominately conservative in its purposes, but also at times incorporating progressive and even radical purposes.
Stan- ley and Nelson organize the variations in social studies curriculum and instruction into three broad and not necessarily opposing categories: subject-centered social studies, civics-centered social studies, and issues- centered social studies. Subject-centered approaches argue that the social studies curriculum derives its content and purposes from disciplines taught in higher educa- tion. Some advocates would limit social studies curriculum to the study of traditional history and geography while others would also include the tra- ditional social sciences e.
The glue holding these various curricular views together is that each seeks to derive an organizing framework for the so- cial studies curriculum based upon disciplinary knowledge from higher education. Some subject-centered advocates argue for cultural transmis- sion, without multiculturalism e. For both groups subject matter knowl- edge is paramount. Civics-centered social studies is concerned with individual and social attitudes and behaviors more than with subject matter knowledge.
As within the subject-centered approach, there are a wide spectrum of views from in- culcating cultural traditions to promoting social action. Views differ on the relative emphasis that should be given to uncritical loyalty, socially approved behaviors, and to social criticism and improvement, but they share the view that social studies is more than subject matter study and must be tied to civic competence e.
Issues-centered approaches propose that social studies is the exami- nation of specific issues. Social as well as personal problems and contro- versies are the primary content of the curriculum.
The views in this category range from personal development to social problems as the pur- pose of the social studies curriculum. Some advocates argue that social criticism or activism is the main reason for studying issues e. The three approaches to social studies described by Stanley and Nel- son are not necessarily separate or opposing. Knowledge from the disci- plines is used in each; none disagrees that one purpose of the social studies is citizenship education; and each accepts social studies as a valuable con- struct.
Who Controls the Social Studies Curriculum? Any response to this question hinges on a conception of curriculum. Indeed, even the curriculum commissions of the late nineteenth century recognized the crucial role of social studies teachers in achieving curricular goals. The formal curriculum is the explicit or official curriculum, embodied in published courses or study, state frameworks, textbooks, tests, and cur- riculum standards efforts e.
Wayne Ross harbored a tension between approaches that rely on centralized efforts leading to a standard curriculum and grassroots democratic efforts that provide greater involvement for teachers, parents, students, and other local curriculum leaders in determining what is worthwhile to know and experience. Curriculum centralization has resulted from three major in- fluences: legal decisions; policy efforts by governments, professional asso- ciations, and foundations; and published materials.
Examples of the latter two influences will be sketched below. Educational reform efforts in s attempted to define the nature of the school curriculum and featured efforts by both intellec- tual traditionalists e. Harris and Charles Eliot and developmen- talists e. The social studies curriculum has been heavily influenced by policies of curriculum centralization.
The current pattern of topics and courses for secondary social studies is largely the result of recommen- dations of the Committee see Marker, chapter 4 in this volume. Despite the changing demographics of school attendance the pat- tern of course offerings have remained relatively unchanged: K. Self, school, community, home 1. Families 2. Neighborhoods 3. Communities 4. State history, geographic regions 5. United States history 6. World cultures, Western hemisphere 7. World geography or world history 8.
United States history 9. World history United States history. American government Efforts to centralize the curriculum through government mandates also have a long history. Smith-Hughes fostered the transformation of the American high school from an elite institution into one for the masses by mandating that the states specify training needs, program prescriptions, standards and means for monitoring progress.
The dual system of education created by Smith-Hughes was reconceptualized in with the passage of the Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act, which provided incen- tives for the development of work education programs that integrate aca- demic and vocational studies. This is an example of how local grassroots initiatives of people who know best the needs and characteristics of economically distressed communities can be effectively supported Wirth, Regents Examinations in New York State are one of the oldest examples of this approach.
These curriculum frameworks are intended to influence textbook pub- lishers and establish standards by which students, teachers, and schools will be assessed. Wayne Ross I have just hinted at the large-scale centralizing influence of educa- tion policies on curriculum. Resistance to curriculum centralization has always existed Ross, , c. There is a strong tradition of local school control in the U. Dewey argued that acquaintance with centralized knowledge must derive from situational concerns; that is, disciplinary knowledge must be attained by the inquiring student in ways that have meaning for her or him.
William H. In the project method, students and teachers took on a greater role in determining the curriculum because they were deemed in the best position to understand the personal and contextual foundations from which a meaningful and relevant curriculum could be constructed. Projects were pursued in small groups or as whole class experiences.
Knowledge from the disciplines would be brought to bear on the pro- ject when it was perceived as relevant. The essence of the project re- quired that teachers and students develop the idea together. If students were fascinated by zoos, for instance all subjects traditional and mod- ern could be related to a deepened understanding of zoos. Schubert, , p. For more than seventy years teachers have relied on textbooks as a pri- mary instructional tool. In , Bagley found that American students spent a significant portion of their school day in formal mastery of text materials Bagley, cited in McCutcheon, The textbook industry is highly competitive and the industry is dominated by a small number of large corporations; as a result, textbook companies modify their products to qualify for adoption in one of these states.
James W. Loewen illustrates this at length in his analysis of U. For example, in a discussion of how history textbooks make white racism invisible, Loewen notes: Although textbook authors no longer sugarcoat how slavery affected African Americans, they minimize white complicity in it. They present slavery virtually as uncaused, a tragedy, rather than a wrong perpetrated by some people on others. However, in the way the textbooks structure their discussion, most of them inadvertently still take a white supremacist viewpoint.
The archetype of African Americans as dependent on others begins.
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In reality, white violence, not black ignorance, was the key prob- lem during Reconstruction. Loewen, , p. That year the National Defense Education Act helped to import disciplinary specialists to design curriculum packages for schools. In the social studies, these cur- riculum innovations were collectively called the New Social Studies. Although social studies specialists helped in the development of New Social Studies materials, the curricular focus was on the academic disciplines.
Wayne Ross experts in academic disciplines, viewed teachers as implementers not active partners in the creation of classroom curriculum. While the development and dissemination of the curriculum pro- jects in the s were well funded, they failed to make a major impact on classroom practices. In contrast, proponents of grassroots democracy in curriculum offered the expla- nation that the failure was due to the blatant disregard of teachers and students in curriculum decision making.
This is especially ironic inas- much as those who promoted inquiry methods with the young ne- glected to allow inquiry by teachers and students about matters most fundamental to their growing lives, that is, inquiry about that which is most worthwhile to know and experience. Curriculum Standards It is clear that government-driven curriculum centralization efforts i. The standards movement is a massive effort at curriculum centralization. Virtually all of the subject- matter-based professional education groups have undertaken the creation of curriculum standards.
Encouraged by the positive response to the de- velopment of standards for the mathematics curriculum and the availabil- ity of federal funding for such projects, social studies educators have taken up the development of curriculum standards with unparalleled zeal. The Struggle for the Social Studies Curriculum 29 Because the aim of these projects is to create a national educational system with uniform content and goals the ongoing debates and divisions within the field of social studies has intensified. The standards-based cur- riculum movement is a rationalized managerial approach to issues of curriculum development and teaching that attempts to define curricular goals, design assessment tasks based on these goals, set standards for the content of subject matter areas and grade level, and test students and re- port the results to the public.
The intent is to establish standards for con- tent and student performance levels.
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The primary tension in curriculum reform efforts, today and histori- cally, is between centralized and grassroots decision making. When there are multiple participants and competing interests in the curriculum- making process, the question arises, where does control reside? The standards-based curriculum movement in social studies represents an effort by policy elites to standardize the content and much of the practice of education e.
Operationally curriculum- standards projects in social studies are anti-democratic because they se- verely restrict the legitimate role of teachers and other educational pro- fessionals, as well as members of the public, from participating in the conversation about the origin, nature and ethics of knowledge taught in the social studies curriculum. Resources that might have been directed to assisting teachers to become better decision makers have instead been channeled into a program dedicated to the de- velopment of schemes for preventing teachers from making curricular de- cisions.
The circumstances described above leads to the final question addressed in this chapter. A fundamental assumption of most cur- riculum-centralization efforts is that means instruction can be separated from the ends curricular goals and objectives. Many teachers have inter- nalized the means-ends distinction between their pedagogy and the cur- riculum. As a result, they view their professional role as instructional decision makers not as curriculum developers Thornton, Wayne Ross What is clear from studies of teacher decision making, however, is that teachers do much more than select teaching methods to implement formally adopted curricular goals.
As Thornton argues, teacher beliefs about social studies subject matter and student thinking in social studies, as well as planning and instructional strategies, together function to cre- ate the enacted curriculum of the classroom—the day-to-day interactions among students, teachers and subject matter. The difference between the publicly declared formal curriculum and the curriculum experienced by students in social studies classrooms is considerable. This is not to say that social studies classes are not affected by factors such as the characteristics of the students enrolled, but only to emphasize that the teacher plays the primary structuring role.
Teachers are actively in- volved in shaping the culture of schooling. This example illustrates the importance of focusing on the develop- ment of the enacted curriculum instead of the formal curriculum. There are three possible roles for teachers in curriculum implemen- tation Ben-Peretz, This view of teachers was adopted at the turn of the twentieth century as history was becoming established as a school subject. Arthur Schlesinger Sr. This is clearly not a desirable role for professional teachers.
The New Social Studies is an exemplar of this role for the teacher. Teachers were viewed as active implementers but not as full partners in the creation of the curriculum. A third and most desirable role for teachers is as curriculum user- developers. From this perspective teachers are assumed to be full part- ners in development of the enacted curriculum.
Teacher inquiry is a key element in the success of the curriculum because it is inquiry directed at discovering curriculum potential that leads to the change and transfor- mation of formal curriculum materials, and most importantly the devel- opment of new alternatives that are best suited for circumstances the teacher is working within.
The current standards-based curriculum movement highlights the contradiction between the views of teachers as active implementers or as user-developers. Ultimately, however, curriculum improvement depends on teachers being more thoughtful about their work see Cornett et al.
The most effective means of improving the curriculum is to improve the education and professional development afforded teachers. Teachers need to be better prepared to exercise the curricular decision-making re- sponsibilities that are an inherent part of instructional practice. Early in this century John Dewey identified the intellectual subservience of teach- ers as a central problem facing progressive educators in their efforts to im- prove the curriculum.
Dewey saw the solution to the problem as the development of teaching as professional work. Prospective teachers, Dewey argued: should be given to understand that they not only are permitted to act on their own initiative, but that they are expected to do so and that their ability to take hold of a situation for themselves would be a more important factor in judging them than their following any particular set methods or scheme. Dewey, , pp. Conclusion In this chapter I have posed three fundamental questions about the social studies curriculum: 1 What is the social studies curriculum?
In responding to these ques- tions I identified a series of tensions and contradiction that have shaped the field of social studies historically and that still affect it today. In response to the first question I identified the tension between the study of academic history and efforts of social meliorists as setting the stage for a long-standing conflict between advocates of subject-centered and civics- or issue-centered social studies.
In addition, it was argued that the purposes of the social studies curriculum have essentially been de- fined by the relative emphasis given to cultural transmission or critical thinking in the curriculum. The second question led to an examination of the long-standing ten- sions between curriculum centralization and grassroots curriculum de- velopment. The recent standards-based curriculum movement was discussed in this section and used as a bridge to the consideration of the final question regarding the role of the social studies teacher in relation to the curriculum.
In the closing section I argued that teachers are the key element in curriculum improvement and that curriculum change in the social studies will only be achieved through the improved education and professional development opportunities for teachers. My intention has been to present this series of tensions and contra- dictions as a heuristic for understanding the dynamic nature of the social studies. It would be a mistake to treat them as definitive oppositionals, however; it is the struggles over these contradictions that have shaped the nature of the social studies curriculum in the past and continues to define it today.
Notes 1. The balance of this section draws directly upon Ross, E. I am indebted to the work of William H. Schubert for the historical analysis in this sec- tion. See Schubert, W. Historical perspective on centralizing the cur- riculum. Klein Ed. This section draws upon Ross, E. Teachers and texts. New York: Routledge. Apple, M. The politics of the textbook. Barr, R. Defining the social studies.
Ben-Peretz, M. The teacher-curriculum encounter. Black, H. The American schoolbook. New York: William Morrow. Bowler, M. The making of a textbook. Learning, 6, 38— Brooks, M. Centralized curriculum: Effects on the local school level. American Historical Association. The study of his- tory in schools. National Education Association. Report of the committee on secondary school studies. The so- cial studies in secondary education.
Cornbleth, C. The great speckled bird. New York: St. Cornett, J. W Cornett, and G. Mc- Cutcheon Eds. Counts, G. Dare the school build a new social order. New York: John Day. The relation of theory to practice in education, In The relation of theory to practice in the education of teachers: Third yearbook of the National Soci- ety for the Scientific Study of Education, part I. Engle, S. Decision making: The heart of social studies instruction. Social Education, 24 7 , —, Education for democratic citizenship: Decision making in the social studies. Fullinwider, R.
Philosophical inquiry and social studies. Gabbard, D. Defending public schools: Education under the security state. Westport, CT: Praeger. Hunt, M. Teaching high school social studies: Problems in reflective thinking and social understanding. Wayne Ross Hursh, D. Democratic social education: Social stud- ies for social change. Kesson, K. Kilpatrick, W. The project method. Kincheloe, J. Cultural studies and democratically aware teacher education: Post-Fordism, civics, and the worker-citizen.
Kleibard, H. The struggle for the American — 3rd Ed. Kohlberg, L. Moral development and the new social studies. Social Edu- cation, 14 1 , 35— The cognitive-developmental approach to moral education. Phi Delta Kappan, 56 10 , — Krug, E. The shaping of the American high school, — Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Leming, J. Where did social studies go wrong? Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation. Loewen, J.
Lies my teacher told me. New York: New Press. Longstreet, W. Citizenship: The phantom core of social studies cur- riculum. Theory and Research in Social Education, 13 2 , 21— W Jackson Ed. Mathison, S. Implementing curricular change through state-mandated testing: Ethical issues. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 6, — Defending public schools: The nature and limits of standards-based reform and assessment.
McCutchen, S. A discipline for the social studies. Social Education, 52, — McCutcheon, G. Developing the curriculum. White Plains, NY: Longman. Morrissett, I. Rationales, goals, and objective in social stud- ies. National Council for the Social Studies. Expectations of excellence: Curricu- lum standards for social studies. Washington, DC: Author. Newmann, F. Clarifying public controversy: An Approach to teaching social stud- ies.
Boston: Little, Brown. Noffke, S. Oliver, D. Teaching public issues in the high school.